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Schafkopf am Stammtisch - die kostenlose App mit schöner Sprachausgabe



How to Play Schafkopf: A Beginner's Guide




Schafkopf (German: [ˈʃaːfkɔpf]) or Schaffkopf (German: [ˈʃafkɔpf]) is a late 18th-century German trick-taking card game of the Ace-Ten family for four players that evolved, towards the end of the 19th century, from German Schafkopf. It is still very popular in Bavaria, where it is their national card game played by around two million people, but it also played elsewhere in Germany as well as other German-speaking countries like Austria. It is an official cultural asset and important part of the Old Bavarian way of life. Schafkopf is a mentally demanding pastime that is considered "the supreme discipline of Bavarian card games" and "the mother of all trump games." Its closest relatives are Doppelkopf, Skat and the North American game of Sheepshead. Its earliest written reference dates to 1803, although it only came to notice by the polite society of Altenburg in 1811.


If you are looking for a fun and challenging card game that requires skill, strategy and teamwork, then Schafkopf might be the perfect choice for you. In this article, you will learn everything you need to know to start playing Schafkopf, including its history, its cards, its rules, its variants and some tips to improve your skills. You will also find out where you can download Schafkopf for free and play it offline or online with other players.




schafkopf kostenlos download


Download: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Ft.co%2FdKEGwzHUiC&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw0Gh4VR1-lmJ7Wznm62-mu_



History




There are various theories about the origin of the name Schafkopf, most of which come from traditional folklore. One suggestion is that Schafkopf acquired its name at a time when it was played for up to nine or twelve points which were marked with a piece of chalk as lines on a board, gradually forming the stylized appearance of a sheep's head (German: Schaf = sheep, Kopf = head). However, evidence of such notation is not found in the Bavarian context where it was invariably played for money. Until the late 1960s, the alternative spelling Scha ff kopf was not uncommon in Bavaria; the ensuing discussion about the supposedly only correct form and its origin was the subject of extensive debate at that time - among other things in the columns of the Bavarian press - before the common variant Scha f kopf became widely accepted from about 1970. The issue was largely forgotten when author Wolfgang Peschel argued in the early 1990s for the double 'f' spelling based on the popular traditional view that, in earlier times, the game was supposed to have been played ( geklopft) on the lids ( Köpfen) of barrels (Upper German: Schaff, c.f. Schäffler/Scheffel ).


Schafkopf dates to the 18th century or earlier and is the oldest member of the Schafkopf family. A 1783 novel describes the scene after a wedding dinner as the dining tables were cleared away and replaced by games tables: "here stood an Ombre table, there a noble Schafkopf was played, over there a game of forfeits, soon a lively game of Tarock was in progress." The game was originally played with German-suited cards, but later switched to French-suited cards, which are more common in Germany today. Schafkopf became especially popular in Bavaria, where it is considered a cultural asset and a social activity. Schafkopf tournaments are held regularly and attract many players of different ages and backgrounds. Schafkopf is also featured in many books, films, songs and jokes that reflect the Bavarian way of life and humor.


Cards




Schafkopf is played with a 32-card deck of French-suited cards, which consists of four suits: hearts (), spades (), clubs () and diamonds (). Each suit has eight cards: ace (A), ten (10), king (K), queen (Q), jack (J), nine (9), eight (8) and seven (7). The cards are ranked as follows: A 10 K Q J 9 8 7. The ace is the highest card in each suit, followed by the ten, which is the second highest card. The king, queen and jack are called court cards or honors. The nine, eight and seven are called pip cards or spotters.


The value of each card is determined by its rank and suit. The ace is worth 11 points, the ten is worth 10 points, the king is worth 4 points, the queen is worth 3 points and the jack is worth 2 points. The nine, eight and seven are worth zero points. The total value of all cards in the deck is 120 points.


In Schafkopf, there are two types of cards: trumps and plain suits. Trumps are cards that can beat any card of a plain suit in a trick. Plain suits are cards that can only beat cards of the same suit in a trick. The trumps and plain suits depend on the type of game that is played, which will be explained later. However, there are four permanent trumps that are always valid in any game: the four queens and the four jacks. These are called matadors or old ones. They are ranked as follows: Q Q Q Q J J J J. The Q is the highest trump, followed by the Q, which is the second highest trump. The J is the lowest trump, followed by the Q, which is the second lowest trump.


Rules




Schafkopf is a game for four players who form two teams of two players each. The players sit crosswise at a table, so that each player faces his or her partner. The player who sits opposite the dealer is called the forehand or elder hand; the player who sits to the right of the dealer is called the middlehand or second hand; the player who sits to the left of the dealer is called the rearhand or third hand; and the dealer himself or herself is called the last hand or fourth hand.


The dealer shuffles the cards and deals them clockwise to each player in batches of four until each player has eight cards. The remaining eight cards are placed face down in the middle of the table as a talon or skat. Alternatively, some players prefer to deal all 32 cards at once without using a talon or skat.


The game begins with a bidding or auction phase, where each player can announce a type of game that he or she wants to play as soloist against the other three players who form a team. The soloist can choose from various types of games that have different rules and scoring systems. The types of games will be explained later. The bidding starts with the forehand, who can either pass or announce a game. If he or she passes, then the middlehand can either pass or announce a game. If he or she passes, then the rearhand can either pass or announce a game. If he or she passes, then the dealer can either pass or announce a game. If all four players pass, then the game is called a ramsch or junk, which is a special type of game that has its own rules and scoring system. The ramsch will be explained later.


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The bidding ends when either one player announces a game and the other three players pass, or when all four players pass and a ramsch is played. The player who announces the highest ranking game becomes the soloist and plays against the other three players who form a team. The ranking of the games is as follows: solo > wenz > suit solo > partner > ramsch. A solo is a game where the soloist plays with the four queens and the four jacks as trumps against the other three players who play with the plain suits. A wenz is a game where the soloist plays with only the four jacks as trumps against the other three players who play with the plain suits. A suit solo is a game where the soloist chooses one of the four suits as trumps, in addition to the four queens and the four jacks, against the other three players who play with the remaining suits. A partner is a game where two players play with the four queens and the four jacks as trumps against the other two players who play with the plain suits. The partner of the player who announces the game is determined by a called ace, which is an ace of a plain suit that the announcer does not have in his or her hand. The player who has that ace in his or her hand becomes the partner of the announcer. A ramsch is a game where there are no trumps and no partners, and each player plays for himself or herself. The goal of a ramsch is to avoid taking any tricks, as each trick counts as negative points.


After the bidding phase, the playing phase begins. The forehand leads the first trick by playing any card from his or her hand face up on the table. The other players follow in clockwise order by playing one card each from their hands face up on the table. Each player must follow suit if possible, meaning that he or she must play a card of the same suit as the first card played in the trick. If a player cannot follow suit, he or she can either play a trump or discard any card of another suit. The trick is won by the player who played the highest trump, or if no trump was played, by the player who played the highest card of the suit led. The winner of the trick takes all four cards and places them face down in front of him or her. He or she then leads the next trick by playing any card from his or her hand, and so on until all eight tricks are played.


After all eight tricks are played, the scoring phase begins. The soloist and his or her opponents count their points separately by adding up the value of the cards they have taken in tricks. The soloist wins the game if he or she has more points than his or her opponents combined, otherwise the opponents win the game. The points are calculated as follows:


Game type Basic value Soloist's points Opponents' points --- --- --- --- Solo 50 61 59 Wenz 50 61 59 Suit solo 40 61 59 Partner 10 91 89 Ramsch -10 0 120 The basic value is the number of points that the soloist or his or her opponents get for winning the game. The soloist's points and the opponents' points are the minimum and maximum number of points that the soloist or his or her opponents need to have to win the game. For example, in a solo game, the soloist needs to have at least 61 points to win, and the opponents need to have at most 59 points to win. If the soloist has exactly 60 points, or the opponents have exactly 60 points, the game is a draw and no one wins. In a ramsch game, the goal is to have as few points as possible, so the player who has zero points or less wins, and the player who has 120 points or more loses. If no one has zero points or less, or no one has 120 points or more, the game is a draw and no one wins.


In addition to the basic value, there are some modifiers that can increase or decrease the value of the game depending on certain conditions. These are:



  • Schneider: If the soloist has at least 90 points, or the opponents have at most 30 points, the game is called a schneider (German: tailor) and the value of the game is doubled.



  • Schwarz: If the soloist takes all eight tricks, or the opponents take no tricks, the game is called a schwarz (German: black) and the value of the game is quadrupled.



  • Laufende: If the soloist or his or her opponents have a sequence of consecutive matadors in their hands, they get an extra bonus for each matador they have. For example, if the soloist has Q Q Q in his or her hand, he or she has three laufende (German: running) and gets an extra bonus of three times the basic value of the game. The laufende are counted from the highest to the lowest matador, so Q Q Q is three laufende, but Q Q Q is only two laufende, and Q Q J is only one laufender. The maximum number of laufende is eight, which means having all four queens and all four jacks in one hand.



  • Kontra: If the soloist announces a game, any of his or her opponents can say "kontra" (German: contra) before the first card is played to double the value of the game. This means that they challenge the soloist and bet that he or she will lose the game. The soloist can then say "re" (German: re) before the second card is played to redouble the value of the game. This means that he or she accepts the challenge and bets that he or she will win the game. The kontra and re can only be said once per game.



The value of the game is calculated by multiplying the basic value by any modifiers that apply. For example, if the soloist wins a solo schwarz with four laufende and the opponents say kontra, the value of the game is 50 x 4 x 4 x 2 = 1600 points. The soloist gets 1600 points from each opponent, and each opponent loses 1600 points. The total score of the soloist is 4800 points, and the total score of the opponents is -4800 points.


Variants




There are many variants of Schafkopf that have different rules and scoring systems. Some of the most common variants are:



  • Bavarian Schafkopf: This is the standard version of Schafkopf that is played in Bavaria and described above.



  • Short Schafkopf: This is a variant of Schafkopf that is played with a 24-card deck instead of a 32-card deck. The cards from seven to nine are removed from each suit, leaving only six cards per suit: ace, ten, king, queen, jack and eight. The rules and scoring are otherwise the same as in Bavarian Schafkopf.



  • Long Schafkopf: This is a variant of Schafkopf that is played with a 36-card deck instead of a 32-card deck. The cards from six to ten are added to each suit, making nine cards per suit: ace, ten, nine, eight, seven, six, king, queen and jack. The rules and scoring are otherwise the same as in Bavarian Schafkopf.



  • American Schafkopf: This is a variant of Schafkopf that is played with a 32-card deck of German-suited cards instead of French-suited cards. The suits are acorns (Eichel), leaves (Grün), hearts (Herz) and bells (Schellen). The cards are ranked as follows: A 10 K O U 9 8 7. The O and U are equivalent to the Q and J in French-suited cards. The rules and scoring are otherwise the same as in Bavarian Schafkopf. This variant is popular among German immigrants in the United States, especially in Wisconsin, where it is also known as Sheepshead.



  • Bohemian Schafkopf: This is a variant of Schafkopf that is played in Bohemia and other parts of the Czech Republic. It is similar to American Schafkopf, but with some differences in the rules and scoring. For example, the soloist can choose any suit as trumps, not just one of the four suits; the partner game is called a rufspiel (German: call game) and the partner is determined by a called king, not a called ace; and there are some special games such as bettel (German: beggar), where the soloist tries to take no tricks at all, and durch (German: through), where the soloist tries to take all tricks.



Tips




Schafkopf is a game that requires skill, strategy and teamwork. Here are some useful tips and tricks to improve your Schafkopf skills:



  • Know your cards: Memorize the rank and value of each card and the order of the trumps. This will help you to play the right card at the right time and to estimate your chances of winning a trick or a game.



  • Know your partner: If you are playing a partner game, try to communicate with your partner through subtle signals or hints. For example, you can lead a card of the suit that you want your partner to play, or you can play a high card to show that you have a strong hand. You can also observe your partner's cards and actions to infer his or her intentions and preferences.



  • Know your opponents: If you are playing against a soloist or a team of opponents, try to anticipate their moves and counter them. For example, you can try to block their trumps or plain suits, or you can try to force them to play cards that they want to keep. You can also observe their cards and actions to infer their strengths and weaknesses.



  • Know your game: If you are bidding for a game, try to choose the type of game that suits your hand and your situation. For example, if you have many trumps or high cards, you might want to play a solo or a wenz; if you have an ace of a plain suit that you don't have, you might want to play a partner; if you have no trumps or low cards, you might want to play a ramsch. You should also consider the score and the position of each player before announcing a game.



  • Know your strategy: If you are playing a game, try to plan ahead and use your cards wisely. For example, you might want to save your trumps or high cards for later tricks, or you might want to play them early to gain control of the game. You should also consider the value and the risk of each trick before playing a card.



Download




If you want to play Schafkopf on your computer or mobile device, there are many options available for free download. Here are some of the best ones:



Name


Description


Link


Schafkopf Palast


A popular online platform where you can play Schafkopf with other players from around the world. You can choose from different variants, levels and modes of Schafkopf. You can also chat with other players, join clubs and participate in tournaments.


[Schafkopf Palast]


Schafkopf HD


A high-quality app for iOS devices where you can play Schafkopf offline or online with other players. You can customize the rules, the design and the difficulty of Schafkopf. You can also track your statistics, achievements and rankings.


[Schafkopf HD]


Schafkopfen


A simple and easy-to-use app for Android devices where you can play Schafkopf offline against computer opponents. You can adjust the rules, the speed and the difficulty of Schafkopf. You can also view your history, score and tips.


[Schafkopfen]


Conclusion




Schafkopf is a fun and challenging card game that originated in Germany and is especially popular in Bavaria. It is a game that requires skill, strategy and teamwork. It is also a game that reflects the culture and the humor of the Bavarian people. If you want to learn how to play Schafkopf, you can follow the steps and tips in this article, and download one of the free apps that let you play Sch


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